ZERO - Research on piperine inhalation

Published : 2020-07-02 - Categories :

IN BRIEF

Piperine is an alkaloid derived from black pepper (Piper Nigrum).

Several studies define how this substance is able to bring numerous benefits to our body.

Piperine as well as being a tumor inhibitor (2008 publication in "Clinical Laboratory Science") and an aid for the absorption of nutrients important for our regular functioning (article published in 2010 in "Journal af Ayruvedas and Integrative Medicine "), Has an antidepressant activity, as it increases the neurotransmission of serotonin and dopamine (study published in" Pharmacology, Biochemestry and Behavior "in 2009).

What attracted our attention, however, were the studies conducted by J. E. Rose, academic university professor, American, inventor and researcher in the field of nicotine and smoking cessation, and by his colleague FM Behm, who found as, the inhalation of black pepper extract, in addition to benefits at the level of the nervous system, by modulating specific regions of the brain, also has usefulness in the treatment to stop smoking.

The studies were carried out on a sample of 48 smokers, following smoking deprivation for a whole night.

The subjects were randomly subjected to these 3 different situations: a group of smokers were exposed to a display that emitted black pepper essential oil vapor, a second group to a device with a mint / menthol cartridge, and a third group to a device containing an empty cartridge.

During the session, smoking was prohibited and subjects inhaled from devices of their choice.

It was found that the urge to smoke was significantly reduced in the situation with black pepper. These results support the opinion that the sensations of the respiratory tract are important in relieving the symptoms of smoking withdrawal.

Other global studies have also been conducted in order to discover potential natural agents that can be used to quit smoking.

Among these substances we find the vapor of black pepper extract which reduces the craving for cigarettes.

THE SEARCHES OF BEHM AND ROSE

Piperine, also known by its trademarked name, BioPerine, is an extract derived from black pepper, Piper Nigrum L, and long pepper, Piper longum L. Piperine is what gives peppers their spicy taste. This extract is marketed as a nutritional supplement and has been found to increase the absorption of a variety of nutrients. Though some of the benefits of piperine have yet to be firmly established, it may also have immune-suppressing, tumor-inhibiting and antidepressant effects. While piperine is probably safe to use, some concerns have been raised regarding its potentially dangerous, enhancing effect on certain drugs. As with starting any new treatments, consult your doctor first.

Absorption of Nutrients

The most established effect of piperine is its effect on absorption of nutrients from the intestine. This effect is known as "bioenhancement." According to an article published in the "Journal of Ayruveda and Integrative Medicine" in 2010, piperine has been shown to increase the absorption of vitamin C, selenium, beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin B-6 and coenzyme Q. The article goes on to suggest that piperine may be useful for people who suffer from conditions that cause malabsorption of nutrients and people suffering from malnutrition.

Immunomodulator

While the primary immune system functions to eradicate foreign invaders, it can sometimes malfunction. A variety of diseases are caused by a faulty immune reaction. Piperine has been shown to decrease the activity of this inflammatory response. The findings from a study published in the "European Journal of Pharmacology" in 2010 suggest that piperine may decrease the communication of lymphocytes in the immune system, thereby slowing down their action. Piperine has been shown to be beneficial in gout, a disease characterized by a strong immune response against uric acid crystals. A study published in "Inflammation" in 2011 provided evidence that piperine blocked uric acid crystals from forming and that it could be used as a treatment for gout.

Anti-tumor Effect

Some evidence suggests that piperine may have some anti-cancer properties. A publication in "Clinical Laboratory Science" in 2008, for example, suggests that piperine inhibits the growth of colon cancers cells grown in a lab. The exact mechanisms by which the supplement prevents cancer are unknown, however, and whether this anti-cancer effect is effective outside of the laboratory remains to be proven.

Antidepressant

Piperine may have some antidepressant activity as well, though this has not yet been firmly established. A trial of piperine on rats found that the animals provided evidence that the supplement had antidepressant and cognitive-enhancing effects. These findings were published in "Food and Chemical Toxicology" in 2008. Another study published in "Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior" in 2009 found that piperine increased the neurotransmission of serotonin and dopamine, two chemicals that are often deficient in depressed individuals. Clinical trials testing the supplement are needed to verify whether these benefits transfer to people.

Potential Side Effects

Although piperine is generally considered safe, important questions regarding its side effects and interactions remain to be answered. According to the "Journal of Food Safety," piperine is generally safe to consume as it does not cause any major alterations in blood tests. One potential adverse effect of piperine is that it may enhance the absorption of medical drugs, bringing them to dangerous levels in the blood stream. For this reason, the supplement should not be administered at the same time as any medications. Piperine may inhibit liver metabolism of drugs as well, which may also raise drug levels. Some animal tests with piperine suggest that it may have reproductive toxicity. Again, when starting any new treatments, consult your doctor first.

Antidepressant

Piperine may have some antidepressant activity as well, though this has not yet been firmly established. A trial of piperine on rats found that the animals provided evidence that the supplement had antidepressant and cognitive-enhancing effects. These findings were published in "Food and Chemical Toxicology" in 2008. Another study published in "Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior" in 2009 found that piperine increased the neurotransmission of serotonin and dopamine, two chemicals that are often deficient in depressed individuals. Clinical trials testing the supplement are needed to verify whether these benefits transfer to people.

Potential Side Effects

Although piperine is generally considered safe, important questions regarding its side effects and interactions remain to be answered. According to the "Journal of Food Safety," piperine is generally safe to consume as it does not cause any major alterations in blood tests. One potential adverse effect of piperine is that it may enhance the absorption of medical drugs, bringing them to dangerous levels in the blood stream. For this reason, the supplement should not be administered at the same time as any medications. Piperine may inhibit liver metabolism of drugs as well, which may also raise drug levels. Some animal tests with piperine suggest that it may have reproductive toxicity. Again, when starting any new treatments, consult your doctor first.

Nervous system benefits: In mice,

an extract of black pepper exhibited activity in suppressing convulsions.28Y31 In one human study, inhalation of black pepper oil components improved the swallowing reflex in stroke patients, apparently by activating specific regions of the brain.32 A novel effect of inhalation of black pepper extract was the stimulation of respiratory tract sensations that apparently alleviated smoking withdrawal symptoms.33

Rating

Emerging, suggestive

33. Rose J, Behm F. Inhalation of vapor from black pepper extract reduces smoking withdrawal symptoms. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1994;34:225Y229.

Inhalation of Vapor From Black Pepper Extract Reduces Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms

J E Rose  1 , F M Behm

Affiliations expand

PMID: 8033760 DOI: 10.1016/0376-8716(94)90160-0

Abstract

Previous studies have suggested that sensory cues associated with cigarette smoking can suppress certain smoking withdrawal symptoms, including craving for cigarettes. In this study we investigated the subjective effects of a cigarette substitute delivering a vapor of black pepper essential oil. Forty-eight cigarette smokers participated in a 3-h session conducted after overnight deprivation from smoking. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: one group of smokers puffed on a device that delivered a vapor from essential oil of black pepper; a second group puffed on the device with a mint/menthol cartridge, and a third group used a device containing an empty cartridge. Subjects puffed and inhaled ad libitum from the device throughout the session during which no smoking was allowed. Reported craving for cigarettes was significantly reduced in the pepper condition relative to each of the two control conditions. In addition, negative affect and somatic symptoms of anxiety were alleviated in the pepper condition relative to the unflavored placebo. The intensity of sensations in the chest was also significantly higher for the pepper condition. These results support the view that respiratory tract sensations are important in alleviating smoking withdrawal symptoms. Cigarette substitutes delivering pepper constituents may prove useful in smoking cessation treatment.

809 International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health Efficacy of a smoking cessation intervention using the

natural agents

Zaka Un Nisaa1*, Ayesha Zafar2, Fatima Zafar2

1Faculty of Medicine, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: Zaka Un Nisaa, Faculty of Medicine, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, Tel: +923335143940; E-mail: zakamaqsood112@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Cigarettes are considered as most addictive product and many people who quit smoking relapse within days. Today the use of tobacco is a greatest preventable cause of death in the world. Several pharmacological interventions are licensed for smoking cessation but other than this there are natural agents which could be very effective in smoking cessation.

Purpose of study: The present study is carried out to find out potential natural agents that could be used for smoking cessation and their mode of action in quitting smoking. Methodology: An electronic database search was performed in Embase, Medline and other search engines. Different articles were identified and their abstracts and full texts were assessed in the final review.

Results: After a comprehensive research it was found that the natural agents which can be used to stop smoking include fresh lime, black pepper, water, ginger, grape juice, St. John wort, ginseng, calamus, vitamin and antioxidants. Lime basically helps in alkalinizing the tissues which are normally more acidic in tobacco users. The vapours of black pepper oil reduce the craving for cigarettes. St. John’s wort is known to have antidepressant potential and helps in smoking cessation. Calamus removes the residual toxins in the lungs from cigarette smoking thus helps in quitting smoking. Consuming more vitamin C when a person is trying to drop off cigarettes prove to be effective in smoking cessation. Antioxidants decrease nicotine craving in those who are trying to quit smoking without making use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).

Conclusion: Overall this study shows that natural agents are effective and affordable, thus in combination with a behavioral support, these agents can be very helpful in quitting smoking.

Black pepper in smoking cessation

The effectiveness of black pepper in smoking cessation has been approved by various studies around the world. A study was conducted by Jed E. Rose in which forty-eight smokers participated and results show that craving for cigarettes was significantly reduced in respondents who puffed black pepper vapours of essential oil and this

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811 International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health

significantly reduced craving at a session of 3 hours.6 Black pepper provides the airway sensation of smoking resulting in short-term satisfaction and also reduce craving for cigarette smoking.7

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